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A Study on Spatial Distributions of Different Manufacturing Processes of Major Manufacturing Industries in Seoul

Mook-Han KimㆍHyun-Chul JungㆍMin-Young Hwang


The coming age of industrial convergence forces us to rethink the role of manufacturing in metropolises. Now manufacturing industries are scare resources to be utilized for the economic and industrial future of cities in which they are located. More detailed researches on the characteristics of manufacturing industries in Seoul are needed to develop economic potentials of manufacturing industries. In this research, we analyze major manufacturing industries at the level of manufacturing processes to distill new implications for policy-makers accustomed to the existing policy framework based on simple industrial and spatial characteristics of manufacturing industries in Seoul.


With a unique dataset of manufacturing process of major manufacturing industries in Seoul, the characteristics of spatial distribution of manufacturing processes are analyzed. Manufacturing establishments are classified in non-process, part-process, and whole-process ones, based on the scopes of fabrication processes they have. One out of five manufacturing establishments in Seoul is a non-process manufacturer. Core manufacturing clusters tend to embrace all three types, while peripheral clusters are often specialized in one or two types. Gangnam and Seocho-Gu are only specialized clusters of non-process establishments in Seoul.


Putting together all the above analyses, policy directions and suggestions are presented. Classical framework of industrial cluster and eco-system should be dissolved, recombined, and expanded to prepare for the future of manufacturing in Seoul. Still, classical industrial cluster and eco-system framework is needed for blended clusters, but for specialized clusters a more situated set of policies may be more effective. In policy suggestions, a policy framework of four policy types – factoryless, smart, workshop, and platform - is introduced to provide more customized policy options for manufacturing industries in Seoul.


01 Overview

1_Background and Purpose of the Study

2_Scope and Methods of the Study


02 Key Characteristics of Manufacturing Industries in Seoul

1_Centered in Living-Relevant Industries

2_Mostly Composed of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises

3_Mostly Located in Small-Sized Workspaces

4_Need to Approve Policies Based on Key Characteristics of Manufacturing in Seoul


03 Characteristics of Spatial Distributions of Manufacturing Industries in Seoul

1_Seoul’s Manufacturers Are Concentrated in Top 10 Municipalities

2_The Share of Living-Relevant Industries Is the Highest in Most of Municipalities in Seoul

3_Headquarters and Research Institutes of Manufacturing Industries Prefer to Areas Full of Buildings

4_Manufacturers Are Concentrated in Residential Areas or Markets as well as Industrial Areas


04 Characteristics of Spatial Distributions of Manufacturing Processes of Major Manufacturing Industries in Seoul

1_A Dataset of Manufacturing Processes of Major Manufacturing Industries in Seoul is Analyzed

2_One out of Five Manufacturing Establishments in Seoul is a Non-process Manufacturer

3_Characteristics of Manufacturing Processes Induce Different Spatial Distributions

4_Summary of Characteristics of Spatial Distributions of Key Manufacturing Industries by Industrial Processes


05 Policy Directions and Suggestions

1_Policy Directions

2_Policy Suggestions